Micropropagation is the artificial process of producing plants vegetatively through tissue culture or cell culture techniques. In this artificial process of propagation, plants are produced invitro by asexual means of reproduction or by vegetative propagation.
It is the aseptic culture of cells, pieces of tissue, or organs. The process of micropropagation can be divided into four stages: Initiation stage. A piece of plant tissue (called an explant) is (a) cut from the plant, (b) disinfested (removal of surface contaminants), and (c) placed on a medium.
Micropropagation is defined as the propagation of multiple plants from a small amount of plant material, whereas tissue culture is the first step in this process, when multiple the plantlets are cultured.
Plant tissue culture specifically is also known as micropropagation because it involves rapid multiplication of small amount of plant material to produce more progeny.
Micropropagation techniques are of three types based on the way of propagation: first, the propagation from shoots with cytokinin like benzyladenine or kinetin; second, multiple shoot differentiation from dedifferentiating tissue, callus, with an auxin-like indole acetic acid.
In macropropagation, large suckers from healthy banana plants are removed and the roots and soft stem portion (pseudostem) of the sucker are cut away to expose the buds of the corm (the hard stem portion at the base of the sucker). The apical (top) bud is often removed because it can suppress development of lower buds.
Callus, an undifferentiated mass of cells, provides initial cells for regeneration of plants during micropropagation.
There's a tendency for some people to confuse the two. In fact, genetic engineering utilizes micropropagation. It utilizes cloning. But the two aren't the same thing.
Micropropagation is the tissue culture technique used for rapid vegetative multiplication of ornamental plants and fruit trees. This method of tissue culture produces several plants. Each of these plants will be genetically identical to the original plant from where they were grown.
Auxins and cytokinins are most widely used plant growth regulators in plant tissue culture and their amount determined the type of culture established or regenerated. The high concentration of auxins generally favors root formation, whereas the high concentration of cytokinins promotes shoot regeneration.
Micropropagation is a rapid multiplication of a selected plant using in vitro culture techniques. In this chapter various aspects of micropropagation have been discussed. The propagation of selected plant through micropropagation would be useful for raising plantation using apical and nodal segment. They are best for micropropagation and mostly result in true to type plants. These segments upon the subsequent subcultures result in a number of multiple shoots. These multiple shoots on elongation allowed to root in vitro.
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