Engineering exosomes for advanced immunotherapy
Journal of cancer immunology and Therapy is an peer-reviewed, open-access scholarly journal focused on publishing articles in all aspects of academic journal and aims to publish most complete and reliable source of information on the discoveries and current developments in the mode of original articles, review articles, case reports, short communications, etc. in all areas of the field and making them freely available through online without any restrictions or any other subscriptions to researchers worldwide.
In addition to naturally secreted exosomes, engineered exosomes open new avenues for advanced cancer immunotherapy. Currently, the two prevalent methods for exosome engineering are direct modification of exosomes and donor cell engineering, generally accomplished by electroporation, transfection or transduction. The optimization and refinement of exosomes can enhance exosomal cancer therapy efficacy via strengthened immune response, specific targeting or induction of anti-tumor immunity. Gehrmann et al. decorated exosomes with α- galactosylceramide and ovalbumin, and reported a synergistic enhancement of the adaptive immune responses against the tumor, evidenced by inhibition of tumor growth and augmented antigen-specific CD8+ T cell infiltration into the tumor.
Similarly, exosomes admixed with CpG oligonucleotide adjuvant were able to mediate melanoma tumor rejection . Exosomes derived from TGF-β1-silenced L1210 leukemia cells have been shown to promote DC maturation and subsequent CD4+ T cell proliferation, resulting in a potent anti-leukemia immunity . Yang et al. manipulated EL-4 lymphoma cells to express both ovalbumin and Interleukin 2 (IL-2), and the isolated exosomes induced a stronger anti-lymphoma cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and inhibited tumor growth . Moreover, by transfection of Rab27a (member of the small GTPase superfamily) into murine A549 lung cancer cells, the derived exosomes could induce preventive as well as therapeutic anti-tumor immunity. Furthermore, with the recent breakthrough in chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy, CAR T cell-derived exosomes have been proposed to be a promising tool for targeted cancer treatment. In summary, engineered exosomes for cancer immunotherapy have yielded promising results, but as this field is still young, more optimization work is required.
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Journal of Cancer Immunology and Therapy
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